Pyramid Construction
New Evidence Discovered at Giza

   It gives me great pleasure to dedicate this new discovery at Giza to my dear friend Rainer Stadelmann. I have know Rainer since 1969, just one year after I began my career as the Inspector of antiquities of Egypt.
   I began the excavation at Meremde Beni Salama in 1969. I took Rainer and some other Egyptologists to visit the site and asked his advice on the excavation techniques. I became very close to Rainer both on academic and personal levels. We would always meet and discuss archaeological theories. Even now we continue our archaeological adventures together. We recently entered the five relieving chambers above the King's chamber in the Great Pyramid in an effort to begin a closer examination of the graffiti there. A few months ago we went down about 20 meters into a Saite tomb found by Miroslav Vemer in Abousir. We recently visited the newly discovered pyramid of Queen Khuit at Saqqara.. Rainer Stadelmann is one who gives his opinion confidently and is not, as other non-Egyptian scholars, concerned with diplomacy.
   A unique man, he is brave and kind, as well as an excellent scholar. This dedication will please Rainer as his interest in pyramid construction is endless. He was thrilled when he viewed the newly discovered remains of a ramp at Giza, and I realized then that this paper, when written, should be dedicated to him.
   As Egyptians we are grateful to Rainer Stadelman for his contribution to our country. Through his excellent efforts of scholarship, restoration programs, training of students, he has advanced the field of Egyptology in Egypt.. We hope that Rainer will continue living in Egypt. He is considered a fellow Egyptian.. To my dear friend: thank you for your tireless efforts. They are truly appreciated.


   The Giza Inspectorate of Antiquities decided under the site management program to do conservation, restoration and excavation of the East side of the Great Pyramid. The purpose was to make the architectural components in this area accessible to both tourists and scholars. The following architectural components in the area needed restoration and re-excavation:

1. The boat pits.

2. The subsidiary pyramids.

3. The funerary temple.

4. The trial passage.

5. Hetep-heres I shaft (GOOOX).

6. Restorations of the tombs and cemetery (G1S).

7. Tombs of the Eastern field.

I. Excavation and Restoration on the Eastern Side.

We decided to demolish the asphalt paved road that was built from the tomb of Seshem-Nefer VI to the rest house of King Farouk. 1

1.1. The result of the demolition was the re-excavation of the boat pit that is located to the North of the upper temple of Khufu. This pit had yet to be photographed because of its location under the paved road on the East side of the Great Pyramid. Archaeological knowledge about it was based on what is known of the layout of the Eastern side. After this we continued work on the rest of the boat pits around this pyramid.

   It took almost six months to clean the pit of sand and rubble. (Figs 1-2).2 Now the five boat pits of Khufu are discernible. Two are located on the Southern side of the Great Pyramid, two on its Eastern side flanking the upper temple, and one on the North of the causeway.3

   Some scholars believe the two boats to the South were funerary boats.4 They base their theories on traces of white color found on the gangplank of the reassembled boat and on the rope found in the pit, both of which indicate that the boat was actually used on the Nile. If this were the case, one of these boats should have oars for traveling Northward on the Nile; the other sails for Southward voyages. The reassembled boat has five oars on each side. The picture of the second boat taken by the National Geographic team reveal that it too had oars, not sails, thus proving these boats were not funerary boats. The marks on the boat ropes may have come from humidity rather than water. It would be reasonable to assume then that these boats were solar boats for Khufu, reincarnated as the God Re, to use on his daily trips across the sky.

   The two pits that flank the upper temple East of the pyramid house boats that were probably for Khufu as Horus. These pits are oriented North and South. This orientation may relate to the power of Horus which was written in ancient texts to have extended from the North to the South. Their location near the upper temple suggests that these boats were also connected with the living King because the temple's design is thought to have been based on the palace of the living King as Horus.5

   The first boat pit may have been connected with the Cult of Hathor who was one of the triad of deities of Giza. The Pyramid complex was dedicated to the Gods Re, Hathor and Horus.5 On the floor of the pit, located to the Noah of the temple, remnants of fine, white, Tura Limestone were found. The walls of the pit had apparently been cased with this luxurious material. Adhered to the East and West walls of the pit are remnants of mortar.

   The remains of red lines were also found on these walls. The lines extend to the North and South walls, and were crossed with other red lines. It is thought that they were guiding lines, drawn by the architect, to help the workmen with the placement of the casing blocks.

   A block of limestone remained on the floor with inscriptions of graffiti which have been attributed to the workmen and their efforts to identify their work gangs. The lines are severely worn and the signs which they formed are difficult to identify. They are tentatively read as "Htp dinsw"(fig 3), or "H3T-SP", but should probably be read as "H3T-SW'. It is thought that this graffiti indicates a specific time for ending the work at the pit. Other graffiti reads "3pd2-smsv?', and behind it "rnbt2". The worker was most likely mistaken because he should have put the letter b instead of the letter p. Other signs in the shape of arrows were written on the South, East, and West walls of the pit (fig. 4).

   Associated discoveries were found in the area connected with the Queens Pyramids and will be discussed later in the paper.6

II Evidence found at Giza regarding pyramid construction.

   After the overseer of all the Kings work chose the site for building the pyramid he must establish the quarry, supply ramp, harbor, and workmen's camp. The tradition required that the site be on the West side of the Nile. More practical considerations required an ample supply of limestone for the pyramid's core. A quarry supplied the stone for most of the pyramid's bulk. A supply ramp allowed the transport of stone onto the pyramid as it was built. A harbor and/or canals provided transport of non-local materials.

   Fine white limestone for the outer casing, basalt for the temples, alabaster for statues, granite for the burial chambers and temples, and the materials necessary to construct a workmen's village were also brought by this route. Each of the above elements had to be placed in the natural terrain in such a way as to insure efficient flow of men and materials.

   During the excavation and the site management project at the Giza Plateau, we found important discoveries connected with the building of the pyramids in general, and with the building of Khufu's pyramid in particular.

   Giza will be discussed as follows:

The archaeological evidence found at:

I. Evidence of pyramid base construction found to the East of Khufu's pyramid.

II. A quarry location.

III. The discovery of the ramp of Khufu's pyramid.

IV. The discovery of the harbors of Khufu and Khafre.

V. The discovery of the workmen's community at Giza.

L Evidence found around the base of the subsidiary pyramids regarding the pyramid base construction.

   Three discoveries around the subsidiary pyramids of Khufu,(GIA and GIC-) concern the construction of the base of the pyramids. The evidence was found during general clearing of the sand around the pyramids. George Reisner did not excavate, or completely clear the sand from around the base of these pyramids.

   Reisner's excavation around the Southwest side of GIC revealed remains of a skeleton. The remains were found within a burial, inside limestone blocks, with hieroglyphic inscriptions of a person named Seshem-Nefer. The burial is for a lady aged between fifty to sixty years.7 More burials were found in the area during this excavation.

   Some are dated to the late period. All of these burials were studied and recorded.

During the recent excavation and cleaning the following was discovered:

I. 1 The pyramid casing.
   The clearance of sand on the North side of the subsidiary pyramid G/A revealed remains of part of the casing, lying in situ, West of the pyramid entrance. The length of the artifact is about 30 centimeters. A depression lies on the side of the artifact outlining the area that once supported the casing thereby revealing it's original dimensions.8 (fig. 5) It was made of Tura limestone. Comparisons can be made between the stones in the pyramid core and the casing stones, as well as between the stones of the plateau (Mokatam formation), and the white fine limestone from Tura. The thickness of the casing, and the construction method of same can also be studied.

I.2 The Round Holes: (fig.6)
   A series of round holes about 40 centimeters in diameter were cut into the rock around the pyramid of Khafre. They lay about 9.50 meters from its base, and were spaced about 5 meters apart.9 The same type of holes exist in the roof of the lower temple of Khafre, which made Grdseloff think that the holes served as sockets for the construction of the purification tent.10 The same type of holes are also found on the South side of Khufu's pyramid. In our excavation we found the same type of round holes on the North side of the Subsidiary Pyramid of G/A.

   These holes are noted by Goyon and Maragioglio and Rinaldi as being connected with the laying out of the pyramid.11 Stadelmann believes that these holes could be bases for trees based on references observed in some in private tomb paintings.12 Lehner took the approach of Goyon, and Maragioglio and Rinaldi, and added that they used these holes to make the layout of the base of the pyramid as a square base.13 These holes are set at regular intervals and form lines which run parallel to the sides of the pyramid. The best indication for the reason behind these holes is for stakes that carried a line used as a reference, by the builders, as they formed the base of Khufu's pyramid from blocks of limestone, or in the case of Khafre's pyramid, from granite. These fifteen-ton blocks are marked so as to define the center axis of the pyramid's faces and diagonals. There are also trenches that infer the infusion and drainage of water during and after the leveling operations.14

I.3 The Perpendicular Lines.
   The base of the pyramid is formed on solid rock. On the South side of Khufu's pyramid the base is seen to be part of the solid rock formation rising as high as twenty seven feet above ground. There are perpendicular lines in the West-North base of the subsidiary pyramid GIC. This pyramid is unfinished with only half of the lines carved into the base.(fig. 7) This, and the lack of a boat pit on the South side of this pyramid, suggest that Queen Henutsen may have died an early and unexpected death. We excavated the South side down to bedrock and no evidence of a pit was found, but the preparations for such a pit can be seen cut into the bedrock base.

II. The Location of the Quarry.

   The search for the location of ramps and quarries must include surveys of all four sides of the respective pyramids. Lehner located the quarry of Khufu's pyramid to the South side of the pyramid base, and South of the causeway of Khafre.15
   The South side of Khufu's pyramid should be the only side which could contain the quarry and the ramp. The East side is not suitable as the tombs located there were built in year twelve of Khufu's reign. The location of these tombs is cause enough to realize that blocks from the quarry could not be dragged through this area since it is known that pyramid construction began before and ended after the year twelve of Khufu's reign.

   There is no evidence of quarries or ramps either on the North side of the pyramid, or on the West where tombs of the officials began to be built in year five of Khufu's reign. The same can be said for the Western tombs in regards to the length of the pyramid construction.16
   On the South side of the Great Pyramid are the two boat pits which have been dated to the reign of Djedefre. The tombs built on this side are dated to the reign of Menkaure.17
   According to the Egyptian pyramid complex program the South side should contain the subsidiary pyramids. It seems that the architect of the Great Pyramid was forced to set the subsidiary pyramids on the East because the South side had to be used for the construction of the ramp.

   The quarry must therefore be located low on the plateau, and on the South side of the Great Pyramid, and this is where it is found. The quarry bears testimony to it's ability to supply nicely layered stones which were suitable for the pyramid's large building blocks.

As the pyramid was built, the quarry basin grew deeper and its sides aligned with those of the pyramid.

III. The Discovery of the Ramp of the Pyramid of Khufu.

Excavation on the area South of the Great Pyramid revealed evidence of the remains of the ramp of the Great Pyramid.

III. 1 Previous discussion on the ramp.
   Scholars propose two theories: a straight ramp or a spiral ramp. Both present their own problems. The first theory proposes a single large ramp sloping up against one face of the pyramid. This proposal has the advantage that all four comers and the three sides of the pyramid remain clear during the construction allowing builders to monitor and check the rise of the sides and the diagonals. Careful surveying during construction was essential; otherwise, a twist might occur and the diagonal lines would not meet in a point at the top. There are problems with this proposal. One is that to obtain a functionally low enough slope - one that rises one meter every six meters, the ramp would have to be extremely long extending over and beyond the quarry.

   The other theory posits a ramp spiraling around the pyramid in some way. The most popular form of this idea has a ramp starting at each comer thereby creating four ramps spiraling upwards and resting on the unfinished outer casing blocks for support.

   These blocks would be smoothed as the ramps were dismantled after the apex of the pyramid had been reached. This theory leaves most of the pyramid's face clear, for measuring purposes, during construction and the necessary double-checking of lines and comers.

   The first problem with this theory is that the unfinished faces of the pyramid could not support the ramps which these theorists believe were made of mud-brick or debris.

   Also a spiraling ramp increases the distance over which the blocks had to be hauled and creates unnecessary strain for the team pulling each multi-ton block. It also increases the difficulty of pulling the blocks with extended ropes around the sharp comers of the pyramid's diagonals. 18 Other theories are proposed by Lehner and Stadelmann. I believe that the ramp rises from the quarry about thirty meters above the pyramid's base at its Southwest comer, and the discovery of the ramp South of the Great Pyramid proved that the last theory is the correct one.

III. 2. The Discovery of the Ramp.
  During the work of relocating the Sound and Light Show cables at Giza, we were able to excavate their route beginning at the Southwest of the Great Pyramid.

Also at this time we started the re-excavation of the cemetery GIS and the restoration of the tombs there.

   As was discussed above the only possible side for the erection of the ramp during the reign of Khufu was the South side. The ramp was constructed of limestone chips, gypsum, and a calcareous clay called Tafla. Due to the hardiness of the construction materials what remains of the ramp, after the Egyptians removed it to build the tombs of GIS, should still exist on the South side.

   We started to remove sand for the erection of the cables North of the paved road and South of the pyramid. During the work we found a big part of the ramp used to transport the stones from the quarry to the pyramid base. This part of the ramp consisted of two walls built of stone rubble and mixed with Tafla. The area in between was filled with sand and gypsum forming the bulk of the ramp.

1. The West Wall:
The length of this wall is 1.40 centimeters, built of a stone rubble and Tafla.

The length is 60 centimeters. Mud was used to consolidate the stones.

2. The Eastern Wall
It is located to the East of the West wall about 1.50 centimeters. The width is 1.45 centimeters and it is also built of stone rubble.

   On the South side of the paved road, South of Khufu's pyramid, we excavated down about 2.50 meters and found another part of the ramp. This part is in line with the Eastern and Western wall and is of similar construction. This discovery proves that the ramp led from the quarry to the Southwest comer of the pyramid and was made of stone rubble and Tafla.(see plans 2,3) The ramp rises to about 30 meters above the pyramid's base at its Southwest comer. The ramp would have leaned against the pyramid's faces as they rose. Somewhat like accretion layers wrapped around the pyramid with a roadway on top. The weight of this ramp is borne by the ground around the pyramid. Traffic could move along the top of this structure as both pyramid and ramp rose in tandem. The top of the pyramid could be reached with only one and one quarter turns. The slope would rise with each turn from a reasonable 65 degrees, for the first section, to as much as 18 degrees for the last climb to the apex. 19

IV. The Discovery of the Harbors of Khufu and Khafre

   During periods of pyramid construction harbors and canals were used to deliver casing stones of fine white limestone from Tura, and granite from Aswan. Alabaster was imported from Hatnub for the construction of the temples and statues of the King.20 Food was transported from far off estates for the workers and the officials in charge of overseeing the construction. The river route could also have been used by workers not living at the workmen's village.

IV. 1 The discovery of the Harbors of Khufu and Khafre.
   Our excavations in front of the Sphinx temple in 1980 proved the existence of the harbor of Khafre's pyramid. We opened a square in this area East of the Sphinx Temple. A core drilling was done about 68 meters to the East of the same temple. The drilling went down about twenty meters and hit granite. Further East there is a drop-off in the bedrock which could indicate the existence of a harbor in this area. A wall was uncovered during the construction of new apartment buildings in a lot, on the East side of Zaghloul Street, 650 meters South of Pyramids Road in Nazlet es-Samman. The wall is about 4 meters wide across a limestone foundation and 3-5 meters across basalt slabs that cap the top of the wall. This could be the foundation of a wall of an old canal or harbor.21

V. The Discovery of the Workmen's Community at Giza: The Pyramid Builders.

There are four archaeological discoveries at Giza connected with the pyramid builders.

1. The institution area.

2. The workmen's camp (a settlement).

3. The lower cemetery.

4. The upper cemetery.

V.1 The institution area.
   Two bakeries found Southeast of the Wall of the Crow measure about 5.25 meters in length and 2.5 to 2.60 meters in width. Inside the entrance of each bakery lay a pile of broken bread pots discarded after the last batch of bread was removed. Lehner found, according to paleobotanical evidence recovered from the site, that Egyptian cereal grains included barley, which has no gluten, and emmer, which has a small amount of gluten. The volume of the breadmolds found in this area indicate that this must have been a leavened bread.

   This expedition found another area thought to be for fish processing. This is suggested by the presence of troughs and benches which could have been used for drying, smoking, salting, and storing fish, at least for a short term; perhaps in jars for which were found lids and stands.22

V.2 The Workmen's Camp.
   In 1990, the Egyptian government began the cOhstruction of the sewage system in the village of Nazlet es-Samman, and other villages nearby, in cooperation with AMBRIC. A distance of three kilometers of ancient settlement was uncovered under the aforementioned village streets. The sequence of occupations at this site contain: mud brick buildings laid out over natural desert sand, destruction of the mudbrick buildings, leveling of remains with a layer containing very dense pockets of pottery, bone, charcoal, and layers of ash, and finally a second series of mud brick buildings covered with ashy rubbish thickly filled with pottery.

   The settlement described above, a great part of it located to the East of the tombs and the institution area, suggests that this site could be the workmen's camp.23

V..3. The Lower Cemetery
   The tombs found in this cemetery are built of mud brick and supported by chunks of limestone, granite, and basalt. The tombs are different shapes. Designs vary from pyramid, step-pyramid, mastaba, bee-hive, and small mounds of mud brick. Statues were found in front of the tombs and inside niches. Also hieroglyphic inscriptions were found written on false doors bearing titles such as shd ir is, and hrp ir is.24

V. 4. The Upper Cemetery.
   This is the cemetery of the Artisans. As we excavated the Lower Cemetery Southward, we came upon a ramp that ran West, straight up the slope, for more than 23 meters. It led us to a second cemetery, at a higher level, close to the top of the Maadi formation ridge.

   The tombs, so far numbering forty three, are larger and more elaborate than those of the Lower Cemetery. Many of these are completely rock-cut or have a stone facade built in front of the cliff face. Others are built of limestone and mud brick in the mastaba style. The size and location of these upper tombs indicates the higher status of those buried here even though, as in the Lower Cemetery, the skeletons were found in shafts, between half to one meter underground, and mostly in a fetal position.

   Many titles were preserved. The overseer of the side the pyramid and The overseer of the craftsmen are two of the most important.. The above archaeological sites were separated from the pyramids on their North by a large enclosure wall, known as the Heit el-Ghorab (Wall of the Crow) which is built of stones as large as those in the pyramids. This wall extends Eastward from the South side of the wadi.

   The wall seems to have been planned as both a main entrance to the Giza Necropolis, and as a separation between the sacred precinct of the pyramid complex.

The Kings Palace
   Stadelmann believes that the royal residence, and the administration court of the country were permanently located at Giza. He feels that the building of the pyramid complex was of primary importance requiring the cooperation of the entire population throughout the year. Based on text on the AbousirPapyri, he connects the palace of Isesi, which is said to have stood on the s (lake) of the King, with the title hntj-s, which is a common mortuary title at Giza. Thus he argues that Isesi's palace was at his pyramid site.25

   Lehner agrees with Stadelmann and reconstructs a huge palace South of the Lower temple of Khufu and Northeast of the Sphinx. He bases its measurements on the palace of Isesi, and supposes that it would be surrounded by an enclosure wall with recessed paneling in addition to large estates with groves of trees, lakes or pools, and vineyards.26

   There is more evidence to suggest this theory and also to propose that the King ruled from the pyramid site. If this is true then is can be postulated that Memphis, rather that being the political capital of Egypt, was to the Egyptians a holy site for the temple of Ptah. It follows then that the Kings palaces were located not in the aforethought cities, but along the King's pyramid sites from AbouRawash in the North to Meidum in the South.

   A survey and the excavation of the English expedition at Saqqara failed to uncover any evidence of Old Kingdom settlement. On the contrary they found evidence of the Archaic capital Inb-hdNorth of Saqqara near the tombs oftheFirst and Second Dynasties.27 The discovery of the thirty one kilometer Old Kingdom settlement at Giza should prove that the administration town was there, and the Old Kingdom limestone block that was found South of the Valley Temple of Khufu could be a remnant of the King's palace.

This evidence suggests that the location of Ith-tawy is Lisht; which is the location of the pyramid of Amenemhet III.

   We found pottery food trays from the South of Egypt in the Old Kingdom settlement, supporting theory that households in Upper and Lower Egypt participated, not only with labor, but with food supplies to further the advancement of the national project. It is known that the King celebrated with his people the completion of the pyramid complex28 Since the pyramid was the national project of Egypt, the King would have had to live nearby to effectively command and control the continuing unification of , the population in the accomplishment of the project. I therefore propose, based on the aforementioned evidence, that the Giza was the capital of old Kingdom Egypt, and that the palaces of the Kings were located near their pyramids.



I would like to thank Kate Nicholls for editing and typing this paper, and Andrew for putting it on the Internet.

1 It isn't known exactly what date this door was erected but it seems to be sometime after 1952. The road was flanking the Northern and Southern part of the Upper temple of Khufu. Therefore, cars and buses used to drive upon the road. See previous work in the east side of Khufu, W.F. Petrie, Pyramids and Temples of Giza, with an update by Z. Hawass. (Histories and Mysteries of Man, London, 1990); G.A. Reisner, A History of the Giza Necropolis I. (Cambridge, Mass., 1942),_G.A. Reisner and W.S.Smith, AJ]isIm:y&127;f the Giza Necropolise 2. The tomb of Hetepheres, Mother of Cheops. (Cambridge, Mass., 1955; S. Hassan, Excavations at Giza 10. The Great Pyramid of Khufu and its Mortuary Chapel. (Cairo, 1960); H Abu-Seif, "Degagement de la Face est de la Pyramid de Cheops", ASAE 46 (1947), pp. 235-243; Maragioglio and Rinaldi, L'Architettura dell Piramidi Menrite 4 (Rapallo, 1965).

2 The length of this pit is about 40 cms. width about 7.80 cms. and it is 7 meters deep.

3 Z. Hawass. The Pyramids of Ancient Egypt. (Carniegie Institute, 1990), pp. 24-25.

4 M.Z. Nour et al, The Cheops Boat I. (Cairo, 1960); A.M. Abubakr, and A.Y. Mustafa, "The Funerary Boat ofKhufu." Ricke Festschrit&127; BABA 12, (1971), pp. 1-16.

5 For more discussion on the layout and function of these bo&127;its, see Z. Hawass, The Funerary Establishment of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure during the Old Kingdom. Ph.D dissertation, (Ann Arbor, MichiganMicrofilm 1987), Part I. pp. 53-85.

6 The restoration of the Queens Pyramid, the excavation of the Isis temple, and the stone structure located to the North of the causeway will be discussed in another article. See also the discovery of the Satellite Pyramid in the area: Z. Hawass. "The Discovery of the Satellite Pyramid ofKhufu (GID) in W.K. Simpson Festschritt, edited by P. Der Manuelian: (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1997), Also on the pyramidion that was discovered see Z. Hawass, "The Discovery of the Pyramidion of the Satellite Pyramid of Khufu", in Abdel Aziz Sadek Festschrifi (Van Siklen Books, 1997).

7 Reisner, Cfiza I, pp. 3, 16-17, 70-72, 130-136.

8 The National Research Center of Egypt did the analysis of the skeleton. The research centers team is responsible for the analysis of all the boens found during our excavation.

9 Maragioglio and Rinaldi, L'Architettura, V. p. 72; V. Holscher, Das Grabdenkmal des Konigs Chephren. Leipzig, 1912, p. 60.

10 B. Grdseloff. Das A e3Lptische Reinigungszelt. Cairo, 1941, pp. 22-49, see also Z. Hawass, "New Discoveries In Front of the Lower Temple of Khafre: the JBW and R-S", MDAIK(forthcoming).

11 G. Goyon, "Quelques Observations Effectuees Autour de la Pyramide de Kheops." BIFAO 67 (1969), p. 73, note 3; Maragioglio and Rinaldi, L'Architettura V, p.66.

12 Personal communication with Rainer Stadelmann.

13 M. Lehner, "A Contextual Approach to the Giza Pyramid", Archiv fur Orientforschung 32 (1985). pp. 136-158.

14 Z. Haxbass, The Pyramids in Ancient Egypt, edited by D. Silverman, (Duncan Baird: 1997) p. 174-177; see also Lehner, "A Contextual Approach".

15 M. Lehner, "Some Observations on the Layout of the Khufu and Khafre Pyramids". JARCE 20 (1983); idem, "The Development of the Giza Necropolis: The Khufu Project", MDAIK 41 (1985) pp. 109-143.

16 Reisner, Giza I.

17 Junker, Giza, X.

18 Hawass, "The Pyramids" in A&127;. pp. 174-177.

19 Lehner, "A Contextual Approach" pp. 136-158; idem, "Development of the Giza Necropolis". pp. 129-132, (figs 5-7); R. Stadelman, Die Grossen Pyramiden Von Giza (Adeva: 1990), p. 266-269 (figs 172-173); Hawass, The Pyramids of Ancient Egypt. pp. 40-43.

20 G. Goyon. "Portes des pyramides", p. 137.

21 For full details of this discovery, see Z. Hawass, "The Discovery of the Harbors of Khufu and Khafre at Giza:, D. J. F. Lauer, Festschri&127; BIFAO, (forthcoming).

22 A. Chazan and M. Lehner, "An Ancient Analogy:Pot Baked Bread" in Allaie, nl_F.&127;q&127; and Mesopotamia Paleorient, Vol. 16/2 (1990), pp. 21-35; Z Hawass, and M. Lehner, "Builders of the Pyramids" Archaeology, Jan. Feb. (1997), pp. 31-38.

23 Z. Hawass, "The Workmen's Community at Giza: Manfred, ed. Hause und Palat im Alten Agypten/House and Palace in Ancient Egypt. Osterreichische Alcademie der Gesamtakademic. Band XIV (Vienna: Verlag der Osterreichische Alcademie der Wissenschafter, 1996), pp. 53-67.

24 Z. Hawass, "Tombs of the Pyramid Builder" in Archaeology,, Jan. Feb. (1997), pp. 39- 43; idem, "A Group of Unique Statues Discovered at Giza. I. Statues of the Overseer of the Pyramid Builders", pp. 91-95. II. "An Unfinished Reserve Head and a Statuette of an Overseer:, pp. 97-101. In Kunst des Alten Reiches, Symposium in Deutschen Archaologischen Institute Kairoam 29-30. October 1991, SDAIK 28 (Mainz and Rhein: 1995) 25 R. Stadelmann, "La ville de Pyramide a L'Ancien Empire". Rdt 33 (1981), p. 77; & Winters argument against this theory, E. Winter, "Zur Deutung der Sonnenheiligtumer der E. Dynastie", WZKM 54 (1957), pp. 222-233.

26 Lehner, "Khufu Project", pp. 19-20.

27 H.S. Smith and D.G. Jeffereys, "the North Saqqara Temple Town Survey: Preliminary report for 1976-1977", JEA 64 (1978), pp. 10-21; H. Smith, D.G. Jeffereys and J. Malek, "The Survey of Memphis, 1981", JEA 69 (1983), pp. 30-42; idem, "The Survey of Memphis (1982), "JEA 70 (1984), pp. 23-32; H.S. Smith and D.G. Jeffereys, "The Survey of Memphis, 1983 ", JEA 71 1985, pp. 5-11; D.G. Jeffereys, The Survey of Memphis. I (London: 1985).

28 See the scenes of dragging the pyramidion and the hnrs shown on blocks found in Abousir, Z. Hawass and M. Verner, "Newly Discovered Blocks from The Causeway of Sahure", MDAIK 32 (1996).

Dr. Zahi Hawass, Director of the Giza Pyramids and Saqqara,
Undersecretary of the State for the Giza Monuments

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